French Poetic Realism is the movement in which the most effective methods emerge for the transition to a layered structure in narration in cinema. With the innovative narrative techniques used in poetic realist films, cinema has turned into an art discipline that can act liberally, politically and without rules when necessary. These new competencies made a significant contribution to the development of independent and world cinema, especially French cinema.
Between the two World Wars, the need for new and impressive propaganda methods emerged in order for the British people, who were struggling with the economic crisis, to hold on in unity. With the approach that emerged after long studies with the support of the British government, documentaries would not only be documenting, but also propaganda and commercial responsibilities would begin to be undertaken.
Russian filmmakers developed the theory of Soviet Montage, which shaped the history of cinema as well as Russian history during and after the First World War. In accordance with the developed theory, many Soviet montage films were shot for about 10 years. Soviet Montage films brought a brand new competence to the cinema with their innovative montage techniques.With this competence that strengthens the narrative, cinema has become an important propaganda tool for the manipulation of the masses in Russia, which was dragged from the 1st World War to the October Revolution and the civil war.
German Expressionism is a film movement that emerged with films that were subjectively interpreted and conveyed with extreme depictions by film directors in Germany, which were devastated in many ways by the First World War. Expressionist films have permanently determined the method for expressing emotions such as strangeness, weirdness and uncertainty that are difficult to describe.
French Impressionism is a movement that has been formed with non-narrative avant-garde movements and carries the innovative cinematic language to the main movement. Cinema techniques developed in avant-garde movements have been conveyed to a larger audience in France with the narrative structure of French Impressionism.
“Film d’Art” was the name of a company before it became known as the name of a movement. Paul Laffitte was a prominent personality in France as an investor in theatre, cinema, literature and art. Paul Laffitte made significant investments in the Compagnie des cinématographes Théophile Pathé and the Compagnie des Cinéma-Halls (Paris Cinema Network) in 1907. After these investments, he founded Film d’Art in 1908 to make theatre adaptations in cinema at the request of the Comédie-Française members. The Film d’Art movement would emerge with theatrical adaptation films produced by some French companies of the time, especially by Film d’Art.
Having the audience watch the footage recorded after the invention of the camera in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, was very interesting in the first few works. The motion and image in the imagery were first experienced by the audience in this period. Watching the scene of a train arriving at the station (Arrival of a Train at La Ciotat – 1895) or seeing themselves and their colleagues leaving the factory (Leaving the Factory – 1895) in a film, was the most innovative visual experience had by the audience to date.
Watching the motions in the films shot before the Cinema of Attractions movement was not satisfactory enough for the audience after a while. Many of the motions that were filmed were those that could also be encountered in real life. Over time, the audience wanted to experience not only its version transmitted to the screen but more of the motion. Commonly available shows such as circuses, illusions, and the like could be much more interesting than films. And cinema began to evolve into Cinema of Attractions in order to meet the demands of its audience and keep the interest alive.